Philosophical arguments aspire to the form of deductive validity. This means that philosophers strive to make their arguments deductively valid. So what a philosopher tries to do is construct a valid argument form, and then make sure that the premises ARE true. In such a case, the conclusion cannot be false. If so, no better argument for that conclusion can be given. Beliefs about what is right and wrong differ across cultures the Diversity thesis.
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What is the morally right thing for John to do? The reason is this: Therefore, there are no universally valid moral principles, objective standards that apply to all people everywhere and at all times. Even if some indeterminacy of translation exists between language users, we should not infer from this that no translation or communication is possible.
Nevertheless, the relativists still have at least one more arrow relxtivism their quiver — the argument from the indeterminacy of translation. John Ladd, Ethical Relativism Wadsworth,p. The dependency thesis ethiacl the claim that what is right and wrong is itself relative to culture this differs from P1 — it is not a claim about beliefs, it is a claim about the nature of right and wrong itself.
It seems that we need some higher standard than culture by which to assess a culture. If Mary has an abortion, she is choosing to belong to the general society relative to that principle. We turn to sthical crucial dependency thesis. And two people cannot be in disagreement about their feelings.
For example, if Mary is a U. This means that philosophers strive to make their arguments deductively valid. Wilson has identified over a score of common features, 10 and before him Clyde Kluckhohn noted some significant common ground:. Cultural relativism seems to be a fact, but, even if it is, it does not by itself establish the truth of ethical relativism.
Pojman tries to attack this argument. This move saves the conventionalist from moral solipsism, but it still permits almost any principle at all to count as moral. If moral objectivism must be false, then moral relativism must be true. Thus, there is no objective right and wrong about the shape of the Earth. So what a philosopher tries to do is construct a valid argument form, and then make sure that the premises ARE true.
If Murder Mike of Murder, Incorporated feels like killing bank president Ortcutt and wants to feel good about it, he identifies with the Murder, Incorporated society rather than the general-public morality. Louis Pojman: Against Relativism and For Objectivism In our own culture, the difference in the nonmoral belief about the status of a fetus generates opposite moral prescriptions. To see how, just construct another argument with a similar form this is called an argument from analogy:.
If it must be true, then the claim that there is no objective right and wrong cannot be true. One Sudanese tribe throws its deformed infants into the river because the tribe believes that such ethiical belong to the hippopotamus, the god of the river. We may not be able to know with certainty that our moral beliefs are closer to the truth than those of another culture or those of others within our own culture, but we may dthical justified in believing this w our moral beliefs.
It is a debate about the facts of the matter, not the principle of killing innocent persons. If Pojman can do this, then even if the argument is valid, the truth of the conclusion will not necessarily follow because it would only follow IF the premises were true.
In spite of this weak dependency ethifal nonmoral factors, there could still be a set of general moral norms applicable to all cultures and even recognized in most, which a culture could disregard only at its own expense. That means thatthe argument is not valid. Beliefs about what is right pomman wrong differ across cultures the Diversity thesis.
Clearly, then, the worrisome premise is P2, called the dependency thesis. He or she may also be an integral member of a socially mixed community where different principles hold sway and may belong to clubs and a family in which still other rules prevail. Of course, if my partner dies, I could still claim that I was acting from an originally social set of norms.
Conventionalism seems perilously close to ethical nihilism. John must likewise choose among groups. Most 10 Related.
Louis Pojman: Against Relativism and For Objectivism
In this essay, he elaborates different arguments against ethical relativism, explains his own interpretation of universal moral principles and reconciles cultural relativism and universality. I share the same mindset towards morality and I believe his interpretation balances out the tension between relativism and universality. This paper will argue why Pojman interpretation of moral principles is a more practical theory and the best suited for my personal flourishing in comparison with Kantianism, Utilitarianism, Divine command, Ethical Relativism and social contract theory. Firstly, consider that Pojman interpretation of morality is the most practical because this one acknowledges the relation between culture and moral principles. Pojman recognizes that rules differ from society to society diversity thesis , but acknowledges that some moral values are identical from culture… Related Documents Essay The Theory Of Ethical Relativism attempt to analyze the theory of ethical relativism, check the validity of this ethical theory. Then evaluate Louis Pojman critique on ethical relativism and analyze does he successfully refuted relativism position. And analyze objectivism; the ethical theory which Pojman erects in the place of ethical relativism.
The Case Against Ethical Relativism By Louis Pojman Essay example