I am also interested in interpersonal rejection and the role that it plays in motivation, behavior, and emotion. More recently, I have become interested in the negative effects of self-reflection and in hypo-egoic states that minimize these negative effects. Thus, no matter what else they may be doing, people typically monitor and control their public impressions -- a process known as self-presentationor impression management. I have been interested in many aspects of self-presentational processes.

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Background[ edit ] Leary completed his undergraduate coursework at West Virginia Wesleyan College in He obtained his M. He is a fellow of the American Psychological Association. Leary also founded the scholarly journal Self and Identity in Additionally, he has served on the editorial review boards of many other academic journals in psychology. While there are clear benefits to the human ability to distinguish oneself from others and reflect upon past experiences, Leary and his colleagues have revealed many disadvantages as well.

Examples include the tendencies to harbor bitterness, ruminate about imaginary scenarios, and panic about remote threats to safety. Each of these negative thoughts can lead to emotional challenges unique to the human species. In the footsteps of Maslow , they believed that belonging is a human need. The inability to do so, or the breakdown of existing bonds, can have a negative, long-term effect on an individual, including problems with their psychological and physical health, as well as overall well-being.

This negative impact is what defines belongingness as a need, as opposed to a simple desire. When one of these bonds is broken, people tend to try to replace the relationship with a new bond.

Leary and his colleagues have defined self-compassion as "an orientation to care for oneself," and have shown that individuals higher in self-compassion approach their shortcomings with significantly less criticism.

Self-compassionate people tended to be more accepting of flaws in their character and behavior than people low in self-compassion: people with high levels of self-compassion did not obsess or become defensive over undesirable parts of their character. The positive affects derived from self-compassion result in a decrease in negative reactions in the face of unfortunate events, including failure and rejection.

Putting the situation into perspective and treating oneself with kindness diminished the need to exaggerate the negative event for the self-compassionate participants, compared to those who were not self-compassionate. One particular study examined how self-compassion affects obese patients with persistent musculoskeletal pain, and found that patients who reported higher levels of self-compassion were less likely to pain catastophize and had lower levels of negative affect and pain disability.


Mark Leary

Introduction Mark Leary and colleagues developed sociometer theory to explain the nature and function of the self-esteem system. According to sociometer theory, the answer to this evolutionary dilemma was the development of the self-esteem system. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. References Anthony, D. Social acceptance and self-esteem: Tuning the sociometer to interpersonal value. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92 6 , —


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Jump to navigation Jump to search Sociometer theory is a theory of self-esteem from an evolutionary psychological perspective which proposes that self-esteem is a gauge or sociometer of interpersonal relationships. This theoretical perspective was first introduced by Mark Leary and colleagues in [1] [2] and later expanded on by Kirkpatrick and Ellis. This theory was created as a response to psychological phenomenon i. Confirmed by various studies and research, if a person is deemed having relational value, they are more likely to have higher self-esteem.

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