For problem sets, same as always, discuss with your friends and aim to score full marks on the assignments. Intermediate Development Economics — Stockholm University I have found that little preparation is actually needed for tutorials as long as you have been following the readings and lectures through the semester. The number of presentations you need will ultimately depend on the competitiveness of your cohort. This is a core module for Economics majors. Sc, it is highly recommended you turn up for tutorials.

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Plotters What is branch delay slot? The location containing an instruction that may be fetched and then discarded because of the branch is called branch delay slot. What is optical memory? Optical or light based techniques for data storage, such memories usually employ optical disk which resemble magnetic disk in that they store binary information in concentric tracks on an electromechanically rotated disks.

The information is read as or written optically, however with a laser replacing the read write arm of a magnetic disk drive. Optical memory offer high storage capacities but their access rate is are generally less than those of magnetic disk. What is microprogrammed control? Microprogrammed control in which control signals are generated by a program similar to machine language program. A sequence of one or more microoperation, such as addition, multiplication is called a micro program.

The address where these microinstructions are stored in CM is generated by microprogrammed control. What is microprogramming? A sequence of Control Words corresponding to the control sequence of a machine instruction constitutes the micro routine for that instruction, and the individual control words in this micro routine are referred to as microinstructions.

Microprogramming is a method of control unit design in which the control signal selection and sequencing information is stored in a ROM or RAM called a control memory CM. What are static and dynamic memories? Static memory are memories which require periodic no refreshing. Dynamic memories are memories, which require periodic refreshing. What are the steps required for a pipelinened processor to process the instruction?

F Fetch: read the instruction from the memory 2. D Decode: decode the instruction and fetch the source operand s. E Execute: perform the operation specified by the instruction. W Write: store the result in the destination location. What are the steps taken when an interrupt occurs? Source of the interrupt 2. The memory address of the required ISP 3. Transfer control back to the interrupted program 53 Define instruction pipeline. The transfer of instructions through various stages of the cpu instruction cycle.

Fetch operands, execute instructions and store results. This amounts to realizing most or all of the cpu in the form of multifunction pipeline called an instruction pipelining. Define latency. The term memory latency is used to refer to the amount of time it takes to transfer a word of data to or from the memory. The term latency is used to denote the time it takes to transfer the first word of data.

This time is usually substantially longer than the time needed to transfer each subsequent word of a block. Define bandwidth. Bandwidth is a product of the rate at which the data are transferred and accessed and the width of the data bus. Define hit rate. A successful access to data in a cache is called a hit. Number of hits stated as a fraction of all attempted accesses is called the hit rate.

Define miss rate. A miss rate is the number of misses stated as a fraction of attempted accesses. Extra time needed to bring the desired information into the cache is called the miss penalty. Distinguish between system space and user space.

The latter space is called user space. Define 1. Signal - The binary information is represented in digital computers by physical quantities called signals.

Gates are blocks of hardware that produce signals of binary 1 or 0 where input logic requirements are satisfied. A flip flop is a binary cell capable of storing 1 bit of information. Define combinational circuit. A combinational circuit is a connected arrangement of logic gates with the set of inputs and outputs. A combinational circuit transforms binary information from the given input data to the required output data.

Combinational are employed in digital computers required for generating binary control decisions and for providing digital components required for data processing. Define sequential circuits. A sequential circuit is an interconnectin of flip-flops and gates. The gates by themselves constitute a combinational circuit, but when included with the flip flops, the overall circuit is classified as a sequential circuit.

Define interface. The word interface refers to the boundary between two circuits or devices. Define pipelining. Pipelining is a techinique of decomposing a sequential process into sub operations with each subprocess being executed in a special dedicated segment that operates concurrently with all other segments.

Define parallel processing. Parallel processing is a term used to denote a large class of techniques that are used to provide simultaneous data-processing tasks for the purpose of increasing the computational speed of a computer system.

Instead of processing each instruction sequentially as in a conventional computer, a parallel processing system is able to perform concurrent data processing to achieve faster execution time.

What are the components of memory management unit? A facility for dynamic storage relocation that maps logical memory references into physical memory addresses. Protection of information against unauthorized access between users and preventing users from changing operating system functions.

Data transfer to and from peripherals may be handled using this mode.


Computer Architecture and Organisation (CAO) - Notes & all | Notes, Videos, MCQs & PPTs

Hopefully, this will be improved in future semesters. You can even ask Dr. For problem sets, same as always, discuss with your friends and aim to score full marks on the assignments. Beyond merely history, it also explores the cultural and philosophical aspects of Japan. Tutorial participation in this module simply required general discussions on ideas mentioned in lecture. It also briefly touches on the changing gender roles within the Japanese culture.



Unit -1 1. Explain the basic functional units of a simple computer. Write briefly about stack and quue. Explain various addressing modes found in modern processors 16 5.


CS6303 CA Notes Computer Architecture Lecture Notes – CSE 3rd SEM Anna University

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