A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. Disposal environ-ments range from exposure in soil, landfill, and compost inwhich thermal oxidation may occur and land cover andagricultural use in which photooxidation may also occur. The conditionsshould include a range of humidity or water concentrationsbased on the application and disposal environment in mind. The measured rate of degradation at typical oxidation tempera-tures is required to compare and rank the polymers beingevaluated in that chosen application to reach a molecularweight that constitutes a demonstrable biodegradable residue using ASTM International biometer tests for CO2evolutionappropriate to the chosen environment. Forapplications in soils, local temperatures and humidity rangesmust be considered as they vary widely with geography.
|Published (Last):||28 March 2015|
|PDF File Size:||16.72 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||19.52 Mb|
|Price:||Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]|
ASTM D 1. Scope 1. Disposal environments range from exposure in soil, landfill, and compost in which thermal oxidation may occur and land cover and agricultural use in which photooxidation may also occur. The conditions should include a range of humidity or water concentrations based on the application and disposal environment in mind. The measured rate of degradation at typical oxidation temperatures is required to compare and rank the polymers being evaluated in that chosen application to reach a molecular weight that constitutes a demonstrable biodegradable residue using ASTM International biometer tests for CO2 evolution appropriate to the chosen environment.
For applications in soils, local temperatures and humidity ranges must be considered as they vary widely with geography. It must also be established that the polymer does not undergo a phase change, such as glass transition temperature Tg within the temperature range of testing.
The degree and time for biodegradation should be consistent with ASTM International methods, and any residues from the intermediate oxidation stage and from biodegradation must be shown to be environmentally benign and not persistent Tier 3.
Note 1—The intended use of this guide is for comparison and ranking of data to aid in the design and development and the reduction of environmental impacts of polymers that require no more than 24 months to oxidize and biodegrade in the intended use and disposal options and create no harmful or persistent residues under the appropriate disposal conditions for example, two seasons of crop-growing conditions in soil. Note 2—There is no ISO standard that is the equivalent of this standard guide.
It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory requirements prior to use.
Normas e Tipos de Plásticos Biodegradáveis
Standards ASTM Standards for Oxo-Biodegradable Plastics EPI supports the development of international standards relating to the establishment of practical and measurable specifications and methods for the testing of degradable and biodegradable products. Standards for Biodegradable Plastics Degradation and biodegradation requirements of plastics vary considerably with intended use including disposal compartments and EPI is working with ASTM and European standards to evaluate oxo-biodegradable claims in various environments such as landfill, soil, litter, commercial and home composting. Unfortunately, at the present time, there are no standards available for the performance of degradable and biodegradable plastics in other disposal environment other than composting. Commonly quoted standards for compostable plastics are ASTM D and EN and are related to the performance of plastics in a commercially managed compost environment and are not biodegradation standards. Both standards were developed for hydro-biodegradable polymers eg. This does not mean that they will not biodegrade; they just convert the carbon to carbon dioxide in a slightly longer time frame.
More D This enables a laboratory assessment of its disposal performance in, soil, compost, landfill, and water and for use in agricultural products such as mulch film without detriment to that particular environment. However, exposure of a similar material of known outdoor performance, a control, at the same time as the test specimens allows comparison of the durability relative to that of the control under the test conditions. Scope 1. Disposal environments range from exposure in soil, landfill, and compost in which thermal oxidation may occur and land cover and agricultural use in which photooxidation may also occur.